Terrorist Use of Smuggling Tunnels
This article examines terrorists’ use of smuggling tunnels to finance terrorism and/or launch terrorist operations. Israel’s Operation Pillar of Cloud and Hamas’ Operation Stones of Shale are used to illustrate both the physical structure of smuggling tunnels and social networks of the people who build and use smuggling tunnels. The sociological factors of terrorists and criminals engaged in smuggling in the same country, such as the Gaza Strip and Egypt during peaceful times and the Gaza Strip and Israel during a state of war, is examined. The article proposes the application of open-source social-network models applicable to regional and transnational tunnel analysis during times of peace and war, employing intelligence from law enforcement and national security sources to improve border security.
Smuggling, tunnels, terrorism, operation pillar of cloud, operation pillar of defense, operation stones of shale, operation shale stones
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