Reproductive Performance of Water Buffalo Cows: A Review of Affecting Factors


  • Hector Nava-Trujillo Producción Animal, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales, Universidad de los Andes, Mérida, Mérida, Venezuela
  • Robert Valeris-Chacin Departamento de Sanidad Animal y Salud Pública, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Zulia, Venezuela
  • Adriana Morgado-Osorio Producción Animal, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales, Universidad de los Andes, Mérida, Mérida, Venezuela
  • Simón Zambrano-Salas Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias, Núcleo Universitario Alberto Adriani (NUAA), Universidad de los Andes, El Vigía, Mérida, Venezuela
  • Luis Tovar-Breto Genética y Embriones Mérida C.A., Mérida, Mérida, Venezuela
  • Armando Quintero-Moreno Laboratorio de Andrología, Unidad de Investigación en Producción Animal (UNIPA), Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Zulia, Venezuela



Parity, season, BCS, energy balance, milk yield, silent estrus, anestrus.


This article aims to review both the economic impact of reproductive failures on the profitability of water buffalo systems and the effect of different factors on the reproductive performance of water buffaloes. Besides, an overview of various non-hormonal alternatives to improve reproductive performance is made. The optimal reproductive efficiency in water buffaloes implies calving to conception interval around 90 days to reach a calving interval of 400 days, with longer calving intervals having a negative impact on profitability. Reproductive efficiency is the consequence of the interaction of genetic and non-genetic factors, and the recognition of these factors by analyzing the reproductive information must be a priority. Although each factor's impact can be of greater or lesser magnitude depending on the conditions of each herd, some factors like nutrition, milk yield, body condition score, negative energy balance, parity, bull presence, low estrus intensity, and season can be considered high-impact factors. Not all factors are common among farms; therefore each farm must implement a program for the identification, control, and prevention of reproductive problems, especially during early lactation, to prevent a long anestrus; and when artificial insemination is used, so that it is done at the correct time with respect to the beginning of estrus to enhance fertility.


Borghese A, Boselli C, Terzano GM. Planetary impacts of dairy buffalo. Proceedings of 11th World Buffalo Congress, 2016: Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. 2016; pp 1-5.

Zhang Y, Colli L, Barker SF. Asian water buffalo: domestication, history and genetics. Animal Genetics 2020; 51(2): 177-191. DOI:

Crudelli GA, Konrad JL, Patiño EM. Situación de la bubalinocultura en países americanos. In: Crudelli GA, Konrad JL, Patiño EM, editors. Reproducción en Búfalas. 1st edition. Argentina: Moglia Ediciones 2016; p. 235.

Menghi A, Corradini E, De Roest K. Profitability of buffalo’s milk in the province of Latina (Italy) in 2004 and 2005. Ital J Anim Sci 2007; 6(Supp 2): 1390-1393. DOI:

Tiezzi F, Cecchinato A, De Marchi M, Gallo L, Bittante G. Characterization of buffalo production of northeast of Italy. Ital J Anim Sci 2009; 8(Suppl. 3): 160-162. DOI:

Borghese A. Buffalo livestock and products in Europe. Buffalo Bulletin 2013; 32(Special Issue 1): 50-74.

Shah SNH. Prolonged calving intervals in the Nili Ravi buffalo. Italian J Anim Sci 2007; 6(Suppl 2): 694-696. DOI:

Sweers W, Mohring T, Muller J. The economics of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis breeding, rearing and direct marketing. Archiv fur Tierzucht 2014; 57: 1-11. DOI:

Shah SNH, Dijkhuizen AA, Willemse AH, Van der Wiel DFM. Economic aspects of reproductive failure in dairy buffaloes of Pakistan. Prev Vet Med 1991; 11: 147-155. DOI:

Khan S, Qureshi MS, Ahmad N, Amjed M, Durrani FR, Younas M. Effect of pregnancy on lactation milk value in dairy buffaloes. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2008; 21: 523-531. DOI:

Aziz MA, Schoeman SJ, Jordaan GF, El-Chafie OM, Mahdy AT. Genetic and phenotypic variation of some reproductive traits in Egyptian buffalo. South African Journal of Animal Science 2001;31(3): 195-199. DOI:

Parmar GA, Gupta JP, Pandey DP, Chaudhari JD, Prajapati BM, Sathwara RN, Patel PA. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting reproduction traits in Mehsana buffaloes. Life Sciences Leaflets 2017; 92: 61-69.

González-Stagnaro C. Parámetros, cálculos e índices aplicados en la evaluación de la eficiencia reproductiva. In: González-Stagnaro C, editor. Reproducción Bovina. Venezuela: Astrodata 2001; p. 203-247.

Qureshi MS, Ahmad N. Interaction of calf suckling, use of oxytocin and milk yield with reproductive performance of dairy buffaloes. Anim Reprod Sci 2008; 106(3-4): 380-392. DOI:

Kumar PR, Shukla SN, Shrivastava OP, Purkayastha RD. Incidence of postpartum anestrus among buffaloes in and around Jabalpur. Veterinary World 2013; 6(9): 716-719. DOI:

Sosa ASA, Mahmoud KGhM, Kanddiel MMM, Eldebaky HAA, Nawito MF, Abou El-Roos MEA. Genetic polymorphism of luteinizing hormone receptor gene in relation to fertility of Egyptian buffalo. BioTechnology 2016; 12(5): 1-11.

Nava-Trujillo H, Valeris-Chacin R, Morgado-Osorio A, Valero-Guerra J. Effect of parity and season of calving on the postpartum reproductive activity of water buffalo cows. Zhivotnovadni Nauki (Bulgarian Journal of Animal Husbandry). 2019; 56(4): 3-12.

Nava-Trujillo H, Escalona-Muñoz J, Carrillo-Fernández F, Parra-Olivero A. Effect of parity on productive performance and calving interval in water buffaloes. J Buffalo Sci 2018; 7: 13-16. DOI:

Nava-Trujillo H, Valeris-Chacin R, Quintero-Moreno, A, Escalona-Muñoz J. Milk yield at first lactation, parity, and season of calving affect the reproductive performance of water buffalo cows. Anim Prod Sci 2020; 60(8): 1073-1080. DOI:

Barros CC, Aspilcueta-Borquis RR, Bossi Fraga A, Tonhati H. Genetic parameter estimates for production and reproduction traits in dairy buffaloes. Revista Caatinga 2016; 29(1): 116-221. DOI:

Tonhati H, Vasconcellos FB, Albuquerque LG. Genetic aspects of productive and reproductive traits in a Murrah buffalo herd in São Paulo. Brazil. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Helsinque 2000; 117(5): 331-336. DOI:

Kumar PR, Shukla SN and Purkayastha RD. Economical analysis of the estimated cost of management of anestrus buffaloes under field conditions using different hormonal and non–hormonal strategies. J Anim Health Prod 2013; 1(4): 39-41.

Cicek H, Tandoga M, Uyarlar C. Financial losses due to fertility problems in Anatolian dairy buffalo. Indian J Ani Res 2017; 51(6): 1144-1148. DOI:

Safari A, Shadparvar AA, Hossein-Zadeh NG, Abdollahi-Arpanahi R. Economic values and selection indices for production and reproduction traits of Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Trop Anim Health Prod 2019; 51(5): 1209-1214. DOI:

Sanker S, Kumar D, Mandal KG, Taggar RK, Das AK. Factors influencing the dry period and calving interval in different grades of buffaloes. Buffalo Bulletin 2014; 33(1): 120-126.

Kumar TVC, Sharma D, Naidu Surla G, Veerapa Vedamurthy G, Singh D, Kumar Onteru S. Body condition score, parity, shelter cleanliness and male proximity: highly associated non-genetic factors with post-partum anestrus in Murrah buffalo in field conditions. Anim Reprod Sci 2020. DOI:

Christa Charlini B, Sinniah J. Performance of Murrah, Surti, Nili-Ravi buffaloes and their crosses in the intermediate zone of Sri Lanka. Livest Res Rural Dev 2015; 27:Article 47. from

Timsina MP, Tamag NB, Rai DB, Siddky MNA. Comparative production and reproduction performances of local and Murrah-cross buffaloes managed by smallholder farmers in Bhutan. SAARC J Agri 2015; 13(1): 200-206. DOI:

Rojas NJ. Comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de búfalas lecheras en un sistema semi-intensivo bajo condiciones de bosque húmedo tropical. Trabajo de Ascenso. Universidad del Zulia. Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Producción Animal. Cátedra de Sistemas de Producción de Rumiantes. Maracaibo, Venezuela. 2016; 88 p.

Nasr MAF. The impact of cross-breeding Egyptian and Italian buffalo on reproductive and productive performance under a subtropical environment. Reprod Dom Anim 2016; 52(2): 1–7. DOI:

Nasr MAF. The potential effect of temperature-humidity index on productive and reproductive performance of buffaloes with different genotypes under hot conditions. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2017; 24: 18073-18082. DOI:

El-Bayomi KM, Saleh AA, Awad A, El-Tarabany MS, El-Qaliouby HS, Afifi M, El-Komy S, Essawi WM, Almadaly EA, El-Magd MA. Association of CYP19A1 gene polymorphisms with anoestrus in water buffaloes. Reprod Fertil Dev 2018; 30(3): 487-497. DOI:

Nasr MAF, El Araby IE. Associations of leptin and pituitary-specific transcription factor genes’ polymorphisms with reproduction and production traits in dairy buffalo. Reprod Dom Anim 2016; 51(4). DOI:

de Camargo GM, Aspilcueta-Borquis RR, Fortes MR, Porto-Neto R, Cardoso DF, Santos DJ, Lehnert SA, Reverter A, Moore SS, Tonhati H. Prospecting major genes in dairy buffaloes. BMC Genomics 2015; 16: 872. DOI:

Li J, Liu J, Campanile G, Plastow G, Zhang C, Wang Z, Cassandro M, Gasparrini B, Salzano A, Hua G, Liang A, Yang L. Novel insights into the genetic basis of buffalo reproductive performance. BMC Genomics 2018; 19(1): 814. DOI:

Verma R, Singh I, Balhara AK, Nayan V, Kumar Sharma R, Chaudhiry V. Correlation between extremes age at first calving with their productive and reproductive performances in Indian Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Indian J Anim Res 2018; 52(10): 1506-1512. DOI:

Mourits MCM, Huirne RBM, Dijkhuizen AA, Kristensen AR, Galligan DT. Economic optimization of dairy heifers management decisions. Agricultural Systems 1999; 61: 17-31. DOI:

Lin CY, McAllister AJ, Batra TR, Lee AJ, Roy GL, Vesely JA, Wauthy JM, Winter KA. Effects of early and late breeding of heifers on multiple lactation performances of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 1988; 71: 2735-2743. DOI:

Zicarelli L. Can we consider buffalo a non-precocious and hypofertile species? Italian J Anim Sci 2007; 6(Suppl 2): 143-154. DOI:

Sabia E, Napolitano F, De Rosa G, Terzano GM, Barile VL, Braghieri A, Pacelli C. Efficiency to reach age of puberty and behavior of buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis) kept on pasture or in confinement. Animal 2014; 8(11): 1907-1916. DOI:

Hussein HA, Abdel-Raheem SM. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2013; 45: 1001-1006. DOI:

Montiel Urdaneta NS. Algunos aspectos reproductivos e inseminación artificial en búfalas. En: Proceedings X Seminario de Pastos y Forrajes. 2006; Maracaibo, Venezuela; p. 174-186.

Khan S, Qureshi MS, Chand N, Sultan A, Khan RI, Ihsanullah, Tanweer AJ, Sohail SM, Hussain M, Akhtar A, Khan D. Effect of breeding method on calf sex and postpartum reproductive performance of cattle and buffaloes. Sarhad J Agric 2012; 28(3): 469-476.

Kantharaja KJ, Tomar AKS, Nataraju OR, Naveen Kumar BT. Effects of weaning and sex of calf on postpartum resumption of reproduction in mother buffaloes. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2018; 7(05): 734-737. DOI:

Amjad MA, Lodhi LA, Awais MM, Hassan FU, Ahmad W. Effect of birth weight and sex of the calf on incidence of calving disorders in buffaloes in Punjab province, Pakistan (a case study). Sci.Int.(Lahore) 2016; 28(3): 3179-3182.

El-Fouly MA, Kotby EA, EI-Sobhy, AE. Postpartum ovarian activity in suckled and milked buffaloes. Theriogenology 1976; 5: 69-79. DOI:

Rijasnaz VV, Mondal SK, Fahim A. Effect of weaning on the postpartum reproductive performance of Murrah buffaloes. Indian J Anim Res 2014; 48(5): 501-503. DOI:

Perea-Ganchou F, Soto-Belloso E. Uso del destete temporal para mejorar la eficiencia reproductiva en rebaños doble propósito. In: González-Stagnaro, C. y Soto Belloso, E, editors. Desarrollo Sostenible De La Ganadería De Doble Propósito. Venezuela: Fundación Grupo de Investigadores de la Reproducción Animal en la Región Zuliana. 2008; p 570-584.

Hoffman DP, Stevenson JS, Minton JE. Restricting calf presence without suckling compared with weaning prolongs postpartum anovulation in beef cattle. J Anim Sci 1996; 74(1): 190–198. DOI:

Cady RA, Shah SK, Schermerhorn EC, McDowell RE. Factors affecting performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan. J Dairy Sci 1983; 66: 578-586. DOI:

Thiruvenkadan AK, Panneerselvam S, Murali N, Selvam S, Ramesh Saravana KV. Milk production and reproduction performance of Murrah buffaloes of Tamil Nadu, India. Buffalo Bulletin 2014; 33: 291-300.

Kumar V. Factors affecting performance of Indian Murrah buffalo: A Review. J Buffalo Sci 2015; 4: 21-27. DOI:

Hassan FAM, Ali MA, El-Tarabany MS. Economic impacts of calving season and parity on reproduction and production traits of buffaloes in the sub-tropics. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2017; 24: 10258-10266. DOI:

El-Tarabany MS. Survival analysis and seasonal patterns of pregnancy outcomes in Egyptian buffaloes. Livest Sci 2018; 213: 61-66. DOI:

Nasr MAF. The effect of stillbirth on reproductive and productive performance of pure Egyptian buffaloes and their crosses with Italian buffaloes. Theriogenology 2017; 103: 9-16. DOI:

Jamuna V, Chakravarty AK. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes. Anim Reprod Sci 2016; 171: 72-80. DOI:

Jakhar V, Yadav AS, Dahka SS. Analysis of different non genetic factors on production performance traits in Murrah buffaloes. Inter J Current Microbiol Appl Sci 2017; 6(11): 4265-4272. DOI:

Zicarelli L. Reproductive seasonality in buffalo. In: Proceedings of the Third Course on Biotechnology of Reproduction in Buffaloes (Issue II); 1997; p. 29-52.

Vecchio D, Neglia G, Rendina M, Marchiello M, Balestrieri A, Di Palo R. Dietary influence on primiparous and multiparous buffalo fertility. Italian J Anim Sci 2007; 6(Suppl 1): 512-514. DOI:

Bolívar Vergara DM, Ramírez Toro EJ, Agudelo Gómez DA, Angulo Arroyave RA, Cerón Muñoz MF. Parámetros genéticos para características reproductivas en una población de búfalos (Bubalus Bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae) en el magdalena medio colombiano. Rev Fac Nac Agron 2010; 63: 5587-5594.

Araujo Berber RC, Madureira EH, Baruselli PS. Comparison of two Ovsynch protocols (GnRH vs LH) for fixed timed insemination in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology 2002; 57: 1421-1430. DOI:

Naqvi AN. Effect of parity and season of calving on service period in Nili Ravi buffalo in Pakistan. Asian-Autralas J Anim Sci 2000; 13: 287-291. DOI:

Barile VL. Improving reproductive efficiency in female buffaloes. Liv Prod Sci 2005; 92(3): 183-194.

Zicarelli L. Enhancing reproductive performance in domestic dairy water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 2010; 67: 443-455. DOI:

Gasparrini B. Effect of reproductive season on embryo development in the buffalo. Reprod Fert Dev 2019; 31: 68-81. DOI:

Nava-Trujillo H, Valeris-Chacin R, Hernandez J, Duran Nuñez M, Morgado-Osorio A, Caamaño J, Quintero-Moreno A. Effect of season and parity on water buffalo calving distribution throughout the year in Venezuela. Rev Acad Ciênc Anim 2019; 17: e17013. DOI:

Rossi P, Vecchio D, Neglia G, Di Palo R, Gasparrini B, D’Occhio R, Campanile G. Seasonal fluctuations in the response of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes to synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination. Theriogenology 2014; 82(1): 132-137. DOI:

Saraswat CS, Purohit GN. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes. Asian Pac J Reprod 2016; 5(2): 87-95. DOI:

Di Francesco S, Neglia G, Vecchio D, Rossi P, Russo M, Zicarelli L, D’Occhio MJ, Campanile G. Influence of season on corpus luteum structure and function and AI outcome in the Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology 2012; 78: 1839-1845. DOI:

Zoheir KMA, Abdoon AS, Mahrous KF, Amer MA, Zaher MM, Li-Guo Y, El-Nahass EM. Effects of season on the quality and in vitro maturation rate of Egyptian Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes. J Cell Anim Biology 2007; 1:29-33.

El-Naby AAHH, Mahmoud KGHM, Ahmed YF, Abouel-Roos MEA, Abdel-Ghaffar AE. Effect of season of the year and ovarian structures on oocytes recovery rate, quality and meiotic competence in Egyptian buffaloes. Global Veterinaria 2013; 10(4): 408-412.

Dharap A. Effect of season on pregnancy rates, milk progesterone, and milk melatonin profiles in water buffalo reared in Canada. Master Thesis. The University of Guelph. Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 2016; 94 pp.

Qayyum A, Arshad U, Yousuf MR, Ahmad N. Effect of breeding method and season on pregnancy rate and embryonic and fetal losses in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Trop Anim Health Prod 2018; 50: 555-560. DOI:

Roy AK, Singh M, Kumar P, Bharath, Kumar BS. Effect of extended photoperiod during winter on growth and onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers. Veterinary World. 2007; 9(2): 216-221. DOI:

Mondal S, Prakash BS, Palta P. Endocrine aspects of oestrous cycle in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): an overview. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2007; 20(1): 124-131. DOI:

Campanile G, Neglia G, Gasparrini B, Galiero G, Prandi A, Di Palo R, Michael JD, Zicarelli L. Embryonic mortality in buffaloes synchronized and mated by AI during the seasonal decline in reproductive function. Theriogenology 2005; 63(8): 2334-2340. DOI:

Russo M, Vecchio D, Neglia G, Pacelli C, Prandi A, Gasparrini B, Zicarelli L, D’Occhio MJ, Campanile G. Corpus luteum function and pregnancy outcome in buffaloes during the transition period from breeding to non-breeding season. Reprod Dom Anim 2010; 45: 988-991. DOI:

Balestrieri ML, Gasparrini B, Neglia G, Vecchio D, Strazzullo M, Giovane A, Servillo L, Zicarelli L, D'Occhio MJ, Campanile G. Proteomic profiles of the embryonic chorioamnion and uterine caruncles in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with normal and retarded embryonic development. Biol Reprod 2013; 88(5): 119. DOI:

Neglia G, Vecchio D, Di Palo R, Pacelli C, Comin C, Gasparrini B, Campanile G. Efficacy of PGF2α on pre-ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum blood flow. Reprod Dom Anim 2012; 47: 26-31. DOI:

Salzano A, Spagnuolo MS, Lombardi P, Vecchio D, Limone A, Censi SB, Balestrieri A, Pelagalli A, Neglia G. Influences of different space allowance on reproductive performances in buffalo. Anim Reprod 2017; 14(2): 429-436. DOI:

Dash S, Chakravarty AK, Sah V, Jamuna V, Behera R, Kashyap N, Deshmukh B. Influence of temperature and humidity on pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes under subtropical climate. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2015; 28(7): 943-950. DOI:

Abdalla EB. Improving the reproductive performance of Egyptian buffalo cows by changing the management system. Anim Reprod Sci 2003; 75: 1-8. DOI:

Zicarelli L, Esposito L, Campanile G, Di Palo R, Armstrong DT. Effects of using vasectomized bulls in artificial insemination practice on the reproductive efficiency of Italian buffalo cows. Anim Reprod Sci. 1997; 47(3): 171-80. DOI:

Gokuldas PP, Yadav MC, Kumar H, Singh G, Mahmood S, Tomar AK. Resumption of ovarian cyclicity and fertility response in bull-exposed postpartum buffaloes. Anim Reprod Sci 2010; 121(3-4): 236-41. DOI:

Akhtar MS, Irum S, Lashari MH, Ahmad E, Ahmad T, Ayaz MM, Lodhi LA, Ahmad I, Akhtar M: Bio-stimulatory effect of bull on post-partum estrus interval in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 2018; 24(4): 603-606. DOI:

Zaidi NS, Anwar M. Effect of biostimulation on estrus expression, resumption of ovarian activity and conception rate in postpartum anestrus Nili-Ravi buffaloes during low breeding season. Pakistan Vet J 2018; 38(1): 35-38. DOI:

Perumal P, Srivastava N, Srivastava SK, Chamuah JK, Veeraselvam M. Hereditary and congenital causes of infertility in buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) bulls. IJBSM 2012; 3(4): 472-480.

Perumal P, Kumar TK, Srivastava SK. Infectious causes of infertility in buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis). Buffalo Bulletin 2013; 32(2): 71-96.

Perumal P, Purohit GN, Balamurugan TC, Prakash Krupakaran R, Veeraselvam M. Infertility in buffalo bulls. In: Bubaline Theriogenology, Purohit G.N. (Ed.). International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY. A5728.0816, 2016. asp?LA=1

Santos AX, Kahwage PR, Faturi C, Laurenço Junior J, Medina Álvarez WF, Garcia RA. Efecto de la suplementación alimenticia con fuentes lipídicas sobre la ganancia de peso y niveles de testosterona sérica en toros bufalinos. J Vet Andrology 2017; 2(2): 52-59.

Swelum AAZ, Saadeldin IM, Zaher HA, Alsharifi SAM, Alowaimer AN. Effect of sexual excitation on testosterone and nitric oxide levels of water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) with different categories of sexual behavior and their correlation with each other. Anim Reprod Sci 2017; 181: 151-158. DOI:

Younis M, Samad HA, Ahmad N, Ahmad I. Effects of age and season on the body weight, scrotal circumference and libido of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls maintained at the semen production unit, Qadirabad. Pakistan Vet J 2003; 23(2): 59-65.

Younis M, Samad HA, Ahmad N, Ali CS. Effect of age and breeding season on the freezability of buffalo bull semen. Pakistan Vet J 1998; 18(4): 219-223.

Ahmed S, Khan MIR, Ahmad M, Iqbal S. Effect of age on lipid peroxidation of fresh and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Italian J Anim Sci 2018; 17(3): 730-735. DOI:

Garcia AR, Santos AX, Nahúm BS, Silva LKX, Lourenço Junior JB, Joele MRSP. Correlations between consumption, corporal and seminal features of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Anim Reprod 2012; 9(4): 1028.

Kumar S, Srivastava S. Testicular biometry and its correlation with body weight and semen output in Murrah bull. Buffalo Bulletin 2017; 36(1): 105-113.

Yadav KS, Singh P, Bhakat M, Mohanty KT, Kumar A, Singh A, Mondal S, Upadhyay VK, Tomar S. Relationship of age, body condition score and rump fat thickness with semen quality in Murrah buffalo breeding bulls. Int J Livest Res 2018; 8(8): 110-120. DOI:

Singh K, Kumar A, Honparkhe M, Dadarwal D. Ultrasonographic approaches for breeding soundness evaluation of high and low libido buffalo bulls. Indian J Anim Sci 2015; 85(5): 451-453. DOI:

Henry M, Brito MF, Neves BP, Auler PA, Almeida J, Andrade GO, Becerra VB, Bergmann L. Peculiarities of the buffalo species for andrological evaluation – results of four years of study and weekly semen collection schedule. Anim Reprod 2017; 14(Suppl.1): 1225-1233. DOI:

Napolitano F, Pacelli C, Grasso F, Braghieri A, De Rosa G. The behaviour and welfare of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in modern dairy enterprises. Animal 2013; 7(10): 1704-1713. DOI:

El-Belely NS, Zaky K, Grunert E. Plasma profiles of progesterone and total estrogens in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). J Agric Sci Cambridge 1988; 111: 519-524. DOI:

El-Fadaly MA. Effect of suckling and milking on breeding efficiency of buffaloes. II. First postpartum estrus. Vet Med J Egypt 1980; 28: 399-404.

El-Azab EA, Mansour H, Heshmat H, Shawki G. The postpartum period and future fertility of the Egyptian buffalo cows. In: Proceedings of the 10th Int. Congr. Animal. Reprod. & A.I., vol. III, Urbana, 1984; p. 424

Valsalan J, Chakravarty AK, Patil CS, Dash SK, Mahajan AC, Kumar V, Vohra V. Enhancing milk and fertility performances using selection index developed for Indian Murrah buffaloes. Trop Anim Health Prod 2014; 46: 967-74. DOI:

Seno LO, Cardoso VL, El Faro L, Sasana RC, Aspilcueta-Borquis RR, De Camargo GMF, Tonhati H. Genetic parameters for milk yield, age at first calving and interval between first and second calving in milk Murrah buffaloes. Liv Res Rural Dev 2010; 22: Article #38

El-Keraby F, Aboul-Ela, MB, Bedeir LH. The effect of diet on postpartum reproductive traits in buffaloes. Agric Res Rev 1981; 59: 1-12.

Kawthar AM, Youssif RH, Khattab AS. Individual factors affecting the interval between calving and first service in Egyptian buffaloes. Egypt J Anim Prod 1985; 25: 319–327. DOI:

Singh N, Chauhan FS, Singh M. Postpartum ovarian activity and fertility in buffaloes. Indian J Diary Sci 1979; 32: 134-139.

Suthar BN, Kavan FS. Occurrence and nature of first postpartum estrus in Mehsani buffaloes. Indian J Anim Reprod 1992; 13: 161-164.

Vilela RNS, Sena TM, Aspilcueta-Borquis RR, Seno LO, De Araujo Neto FR, Becker Scalez DC, Tonhati H. Genetic correlations and trends for traits of economic importance in dairy buffalo. Anim Prod Sci 2020; 60(4): 492-496. DOI:

Borghese A, Rasmussen M, Thomas CS. Milking management of dairy buffalo. Italian J Anim Sci 2007; 6(Sup 2): 39-50. DOI:

Akhtar MS, Lodhi LA, Farooq AA, Ayaz MM, Hussain M, Lashari MH, Chaudhary ZI. Effect of oxytocin administration before milking on milk production, somatic cells count and fat contents in milk of NiliRavi buffaloes. Pakistan Vet J 2012; 32(3): 435-437.

Iqbal Z, Rahman ZU, Muhammad F, Khaliq T, Anwar H, Awais MM, Sadaf S. Oxytocin induced oxidative stress in lactating Bubalis (Nili-Ravi). BMC Vet Res 2013; 9(1): 169. DOI:

Mustafa MY, Saleem K, Munir R, Butt TM. Effect of oxytocin on the productive and reproductive performance of buffalo and cattle in Sheikhupura-Pakistan (A field study). Livest Res Rural Dev 2008; 20(12): 193.

Baruselli PS, Barnabe VH, Barnabe RC, Visintin JA, Molero-Filho JR, Porto Filho R. Effect of body condition score at calving on postpartum reproductive performances in buffalo. Buff J. 2001; 1: 53-65.

Mahmoud ME, Salman D. Low body condition scoring as a detrimental factor to reproductive performance and behavior in dairy cattle and Seidi buffaloes. Assiut Vet Med J 2015; 61(145): 112-118. DOI:

Bhalaru S, Tiwana MS, Singh N. Effect of body condition at calving, on subsequent reproductive performance in buffaloes. Indian J Anim Sci 1987; 57: 33-36.

Patel M, Lakhani GP, Ghosh S, Nayak S, Roy B, Baghel RPS, Jain A. Effect of body condition score on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance of lactating Murrah buffaloes. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2018; 7(11): 1204-1212. DOI:

Othoman OE, Ahmed WM, Balabel EA. Genetic polymorphism of Cyp19 gene and its association with ovarian activity in Egyptian buffaloes. Global Veterinaria 2014; 12(6): 768-773.

Gamit PM, Singh RR, Kumar A, Kharadi VB, Patel NB. Relationship of postpartum interval to estrus, body condition score, milk yield and blood biochemical parameters in Surti buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). J Applied Nat Sci 2016; 8(2): 899-904. DOI:

Raj MP, Venkata Naidu G, Srinivas M, Raghunath M, Rao KA. Relationship of body condition score at estrus and conception rate in graded Murrah buffaloes. J Anim Res 2016; 6(5): 829-834. DOI:

Devkota B. Association of nutritional status to reproductive performance in buffaloes. J Agric Forest University 2018; 2: 1-7.

Devkota B, Nakao T, Kobayashi K, Sato H, Sah SK, Singh DK, Dhakal IP, Yamagishi N. Effects of treatment for anestrus in water buffaloes with PGF2α and GnRH in comparison with vitamin-mineral supplement, and some factors influencing treatment effects. J Vet Med Sci 2013; 75(12): 1623–1627. DOI:

Campanile G. Relationship between Nutrition and Reproduction in buffalo. "Third course on biotechnology of reproduction in buffaloes". Bubalus bubalis 1997; 4(Suppl 1): 217-235.

Abayawansa WD, Prabhakar S, Singh AK, Brar PS. Bodyweight changes in winter and summer calving buffalo during peripartum period. Indian J Anim Reprod 2012; 33(2): 47-50.

Deka RS, Mani V, Kumar M, Shiwajirao ZS, Tyagy AK, Kaur H. Body condition, energy balance and immune status of periparturient Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) supplemented with inorganic chromium. Biol Trace Elem Res 2014; 161: 57-68. DOI:

Reddy NA, Venkata Seshiah CH, Sudhakar K, Srinivasa Kumar D, Kanth Reddy PR. Negative energy balance indicators as predictors for milk production in high yielding Murrah buffaloes. GJBB 2017; 6(2): 369-373. DOI:

Delfino NC, Bulcão LFA, Alba HDR, Oliveira MXDS, Queiroz FPS, Carvalho GGP, Rennó FP, de Freitas Júnior JE. Influence of body condition score at calving on the metabolic status and production performance of Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during the transition period. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018; 31(11): 1756-1765. DOI:

Fiore E, Giambelluca S, Morgante M, Contiero B, Mazzotta E, Vecchio D, Vazzana I, Rossi P, Arfuso F, Piccione G, Gianesella M. Changes in some blood parameters, milk composition and yield of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during the transition period. Anim Sci J 2017; 88(12): 2025-2032. DOI:

Fiore E, Arfuso F, Gianesella M, Vecchio D, Morgante M, Mazzotta E, Badon T, Rossi P, Bedin S, Piccione G. Metabolic and hormonal adaptation in Bubalus bubalis around calving and early lactation. PLoS One 2018; 13(4): e0193803. DOI:

Bhalaru S, Dhillon J, Tiwana M. Effect of body weight at calving on body-weight changes during early lactation and post-partum reproductive performance in buffaloes. The Journal of Agricultural Science 1981; 97(3): 595-597. DOI:

Infascelli F, De Rosa C, Amante L, Zicarelli F, Potena A, Campanile G. Productive level and energy balance in buffalo cow. Italian J Anim Sci 2003; 2(Suppl. 1): 204-206.

Jalali MT, Nouri M, Rasooli A, Haji Hajikolaei MR, Shahryari A, Shirazi MR. Hepatic triacylglycerols and serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) variations in indigenous water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the province of Khuzestan, Iran. Int J Vet Res 2011; 5(3): 151-155.

Monteiro BM, Yasouka MM, Pogliani FC, Ayres H, Viana RB, Birgel Junior EH. Lipid and glucose profiles of dairy buffaloes during lactation and dry period. Rev Cienc Agrar 2012; 55(1): 33-39. DOI:

Verdurico LC, Gandra JR, Tekiya CS, Freitas Junior JE, Barletta RV, Gardinal R, Calomeni GD, De Paiva PG, Renno FP. Differences in blood and milk fatty acid profile of primiparous and multiparous Mediterranean buffaloes cows during transition period and early lactation. J Buffalo Sci 2015; 4(2): 40-45 DOI:

Pande N, Agrawal R, Shrivastava OP, Swamy M. Alterations in haemato-metabolic status and body condition score of buffaloes during the transition period. J Livestock Sci 2016; 7: 122-125.

Ahmed EA, Elsayed DH, Kilani OE, El-Beltagy MA. Multivitamins preventive therapy against subclinical endometritis in buffaloes: Its correlation to NEFA and oxidative stress. Reprod Biology 2017; 17(3): 239-245 DOI:

Reddy NA, Venkata Seshiah CH, Sudhakar K, Srinivasa Kumar D, Kanth Reddy PR. Extent of adaptation of high yielding murrah buffaloes to negative energy balance in response to various dry period lengths. Indian J Anim Res 2018; 52(11): 552-1556. DOI:

Golla N, Chopra A, Boya S, Kumar TVC, Onteru SK, Singh D. High serum free fatty acids and low leptin levels: Plausible metabolic indicators of negative energy balance in early lactating Murrah buffaloes. J Cell Physiol 2019; 234(6): 7725-7733. DOI:

Campanile G, Di Palo R, Zicarelli L. Bilancio energetico e attività riproduttiva nella specie bufalina. Proc. I Congr. Naz. sull’All. del Bufalo, Eboli (SA); 2001. P. 114-127

Mavi PS, Bahga, CS, Verma HK, Uppal SK, Sidhu SS. 2011. Postpartum performance as influenced by body weight changes at parturition in buffaloes. Indian J Anim Reprod 2011; 32(1): 61-63.

Huseein HA, Senosy W, Abdellah MR. Relationship among uterine involution, ovarian activity, blood metabolites and subsequent reproductive performance in Egyptian buffaloes. Open J Animal Sci 2013; 3(1): 59-69. DOI:

Banu TA, Shamsuddin M, Bhattacharjee J, Islam MF, Khan SI, Ahmed JU. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production. Acta Vet Scand 2012; 54: 30. DOI:

Senosy W, Hussein HA. Association among energy status, subclinical endometritis postpartum and subsequent reproductive performance in Egyptian buffaloes. Anim Reprod Sci 2013; 140: 40-46. DOI:

Elsayed DH, Abdelrazek HMA, El Nabtiti AAS, Mahmoud YK, Abd El-Hameed NE. Associations between metabolic profiles, post-partum delayed resumption of ovarian function and reproductive performance in Egyptian buffalo: Functions of IGF-1 and antioxidants. Anim Reprod Sci 2019; 208: 106134. DOI:

Zulu VC, Sawamukai Y, Nakada K, Kida K, Moriyoshi M. Relationship among insulin-like growth factor-I, blood metabolites and postpartum ovarian function in dairy cows. J Vet Med Sci 2002; 64(10): 879-85. DOI:

Butler ST, Marr AL, Pelton SH, Radcliff RP, Lucy MC, Butler WR. Insulin restores GH responsiveness during lactation-induced negative energy balance in dairy cattle: effects on expression of IGF-I and GH receptor 1A. J Endocrinol 2003; 176: 205–217. DOI:

Mili B, Pandita S, Bharath Kumar BS. Association of blood metabolites with reproductive disorders in postpartum Murrah buffaloes. Buffalo Bulletin 2016; 35(4): 643-651.

Patra MK, Kumar H, Nandi S. Neutrophil functions and cytokines expression profile in buffaloes with impending postpartum reproductive disorders. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 2013; 26(10): 1406-1415. DOI:

Esposito G, Iron PC, Webb EC, Chapwanya A. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 2014; 144: 60-71. DOI:

Qureshi MS, Habib G, Samad HA, Siddiqui MM, Ahmad N, Syed M. Reproduction-nutrition relationship in dairy buffaloes. I. Effect of intake of protein, energy and blood metabolites levels. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2002; 15: 330-339 DOI:

Ahmed WM, El Khadrawy HH, Hanafi EM, El Hameed ARA, Sabra HA. Effect of copper deficiency on ovarian activity in Egyptian buffalo-cows. World J Zoology 2009; 4(1): 01-08.

Hafez MH. Serum hormonal, metabolic and minerals profile in normal cyclic and postpartum anestrus Egyptian buffaloes. AJVS 2019; 60(2): 102-108. DOI:

Dhami AJ, Thavani KL, Patel JA, Sarvaiya NP. Post-abortion and post-partum serum progesterone profile and breeding efficiency in buffaloes retaining fetal membranes. Buffalo Bulletin 2012; 31(4): 189-192.

Khan HM, Mohanty TK, Raina VS, Gupta AK, Bhakat M. Effect of peripartum disorders on reproduction performance traits in Murrah buffaloes at an organized farm. Buffalo Bulletin 2009; 28(4): 176-211.

Jan MH, Kumar H, Sharma RK, Kumar S, Gupta A. Prevalence, risk factors and impact of subclinical endometritis on reproductive performance of Nili-Ravi buffalo. J Anim Res 2019; 9(2): 351-357. DOI:

Thu LT, My LR, Lan PD, Lang PS, Phuc DV, Doanhi PQ. Epidemiological survey on Trypanosoma evansi infection in Vietnam. J Protozool Res 1998; 8: 177-181.

Fagiolo A, Roncoroni C, Lai O, Borghese A. Buffalo pathologies. In: Antonio Borghese, editor. Buffalo Production and Research 2005; p. 249-296.

Galiero G. Causes of infectious abortion in the Mediterranean buffalo. Italian J Anim Sci 2007; 6(Suppl 2): 194-199. DOI:

Martuccello A, di Mia GM, Giammarioli M, De Donato I, Iovane G, Galiero G. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus from three water buffalo fetuses (Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy. J Vet Diagn Invest 2009; 21: 137-140. DOI:

Paradiso R, Riccardi MG, Lucibelli MG, Cerrone A, Amelio T, Del Piano F, De Carlo E, Galiero G, Borriello G. Novel approaches for diagnosis of bacterial agents responsible for abortion in water buffalo through metagenomic análisis. Memories 11th WORLD BUFFALO CONGRESS 2016, Colombia 23-26 November, 2016. In: CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. Septiembre-Diciembre: 224.

Pérez-Gil R. Identificación molecular de Leptospira spp. patógenas en cultivos provenientes de fetos bovinos abortados. Memories 11th WORLD BUFFALO CONGRESS 2016, Colombia 23-26 November, 2016. In: CES Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. Septiembre-Diciembre: 229.

Shaapan RM. The common zoonotic protozoal diseases causing abortion. J Parasit Dis 2016; 40(4): 1116-1129. DOI:

Maherchandani S, Kumar A, Kashyap SK. Infectious causes of bufaline abortion. In: Bubaline Theriogenology, Purohit G.N. (Ed.). International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY. 2018; A5711.0715. purohit/chap10/chapter.asp?LA=1

Saini P, Singh M, Kumar P. Fungal endometritis in bovines. Open Vet J. 2019; 9(1): 94-98. doi: 10.4314/ovj.v9i1.16. DOI:

Ciuca L, Borriello G, Bosco A, D’Andea L, Gringoli G, Ciaramella P, Maurelli MP, Di Loria A, Rinaldi L, Guccioni J. Seroprevalence and clinical outcomes of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Besnoitia besnoiti infections in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Animals 2020; 10(3): 532. DOI:

Kumar A, Kumar S, Singh M, Gokuldas PP, Kumar P. Non-infectious Causes of Bubaline Abortions. In: Bubaline Theriogenology, Purohit G.N. (Ed.). International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY. 2015;A5711.0715

Ijaz M, Ghaffar A, Ali A, Farooqi SH, Khan YR, Aqib AI. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis and its association with

reproductive and productive parameters from buffalo population of Rajanpur and Muzaffargarh districts of Pakistan. J Anim Plant Sci 2020; 30(1): 58-64. DOI:

Roncoroni C, Barile VL, Allegrini S, Grifoni G, Pettirossi N, Fagiolo A. Serological survey and reproductive performances in buffaloes under fixed time artificial insemination. Italian J Anim Sci 2007; 6(Suppl 2): 828-831. DOI:

Ahmed WM, Zaher KS. A field contribution of the relation between reproductive disorders and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in buffalo-cows. American-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 2008; 3(5): 736-742.

Manimaran A, Kumaresan A, Sreela L, Boopathi V, Arul Prakash M. Effects of clinical mastitis on days open in dairy cattle and buffaloes. Indian Vet J 2014; 91(12): 67-8.

Mansour MM, Zeitoun MM, Hussein FM. Mastitis outcomes on pre-ovulatory follicle diameter, estradiol concentrations, subsequent luteal profiles and conception rate in Buffaloes. Anim Reprod Sci 2017; 181: 159-166 DOI:

Mansour MM, Hendawy AO, Zeitoun MM. Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes. Theriogenology 2016; 86(5): 1189-94. DOI:

Bifulco G, Veneziano V, Cimmino R, Esposito L, Auletta L, Varricchio E, Balestrieri A, Claps S, Campanile G, Neglia G. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes. J Anim Sci 2015; 93(4): 1850-1858. DOI:

Ahmed WM, Habeeb SM, El Moghazy FM, Hanafi EM. 2009. Observation on pediculosis in buffalo-cows with emphasis on its impact on ovarian activity and control by herbal remedies. WASJ 2009; 6(8): 1128-1138.

El-Khadrawy HH, El Moghazy FM, El Aziz MMA, Ahmed WM. Field investigation on the correlation between ovarian activity and fascioliosis in buffalo-cows. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 2008; 3(4): 539-546.

Vale WG, Ribeiro HFL. Caracteristicas reprodutivas dos bubalinos: puberdade, ciclo estral, involuaçào uterina e atividade ovariana no pós-parto. Rev Bras Reprod Anim 2005; 29: 63-73.

Rahman MS, Shohag AS, Kamal MM, Parveen N, Shamsuddin, M. Application of ultrasonography to investigate postpartum anestrus in water buffaloes. Reprod Dev Biol 2012; 36(2): 103-108.

Perera BM. Reproductive cycles of buffalo. Anim Reprod Sci 2011; 124(3-4): 194-199. DOI:

Campanile G, Baruselli PS, Vecchio D, Prandi A, Neglia G, Carvalho NAT, Sales JNS, Gasparrini B, D’Occhio MJ. Growth, metabolic status and ovarian function in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers fed a low energy or high energy diet. Anim Reprod Sci 2010; 122(1-2): 74-81. DOI:

Singh G, Adams G. The reproductive pattern and efficiency of female buffaloes. Anim Reprod Sci 2000; 60-61: 593-604. DOI:

Sánchez Valencia J. Aspectos reproductivos y endocrinos del ciclo estral de la hembra bufalina (Bubalus bubalis). Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de Caldas, Colombia, 2016; p.140.

Moioli BM, Napolitano F, Puppo S, Barile VL, Terzano GM, Borghese A, Malfatti A, Catalano A, Pilla AM. Patterns of oestrus, time of LH release and ovulation and effects of time of artificial insemination in Mediterranean buffalo cows. Anim. Sci 1998; 66: 87-91. DOI:

Baruselli PS, Carvalho NAT. Reproduction Management and artificial insemination in buffalo. In: 1st Buffalo Symposium of Americas, Belém, PA. Proceedings 2002; p.119-143.

Barile V.L. Improving reproductive efficiency in female buffaloes. Livest. Prod. Sci. 2005; 92: 183-194. DOI:

Lohan IS, Malik RK, Kaker ML. Uterine involution and ovarian follicular growth during early postpartum period of Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 2004; 17(3): 313-316 DOI:

Awasthi MK, Kavani FS, Siddiquee GM, Sarvaiya NP, Derashri HJ. Is slow follicular growth the cause of silent estrus in water buffaloes? Anim Reprod Sci 2006; 99(3-4): 258-68. DOI:

Jha SS. Ovarian responses of buffalo treated with PGF2 alpha. Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2011; 4: 377-379.

Porto-Filho RM, Gimenes LU, Monteiro BM, Carvalho NAT, Ghuman SPS, Madureira EH, Baruselli PS. Detection of estrous behavior in buffalo heifers by radiotelemetry following PGF2α administration during the early or late luteal phase. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 2014; 144: 90-94. DOI:

Hiremath S, Ramesha KP. Controlled breeding and reproductive management in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using Eazi Breed controlled internal drug release. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 2015; 86(1): Art. 1064. DOI:

Riaz U, Hassan M, Husnain A, Naveed MI, Singh J, Ahmad N. Effect of timing of artificial insemination in relation to onset of standing estrus on pregnancy per AI in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Anim Reprod 2018; 15(4): 1231-1235. DOI:

Pandey AK, Dhaliwal GS, Ghuman SPS, Agarwal SK. Impact of pre-ovulatory follicle diameter on plasma estradiol, subsequent luteal profiles and conception rate in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Anim. Reprod. Sci. 2011; 123: 169-174. DOI:

Pandey AK, Ghuman SPS, Dhaliwa GS, Honparkhe M, Phogat JB, Kumar S. Effects of preovulatory follicle size on estradiol concentrations, corpus luteum diameter, progesterone concentrations and subsequent pregnancy rate in buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology. 2018; 107: 57-62. DOI:

De Carvalho NA, Soares JG, Baruselli PS. Strategies to overcome seasonal anestrus in water buffalo. Theriogenology 2016; 86(1): 200-6. DOI:

Balamurugan B, Karuthadurai T, Ramamoorthy M, Jena D. Manipulation of estrous cycle to improve reproductive efficiency in cattle and buffalo. Int J Livest Res 2017; 8(1): 19-31. DOI:

Gutiérrez-Añez JC, Palomares RA, Jiménez- Pineda JR, Camacho AR, Portillo-Martínez GE. Pregnancy rate in water buffalo following fixed-time artificial insemination using new or used intravaginal devices with two progesterone concentrations. Trop Anim Health Prod 2017; 50(3): 629-634 DOI:

Monteiro BM, de Souza DC, de Carvalho NAT, Baruselli PS. Effect of season on dairy buffalo reproductive performance when using P4/E2/eCG-based fixed-time artificial insemination management. Theriogenology 2018; 119: 275-281. DOI:

Ahmad N, Arshad U. Synchronization and resynchronization strategies to improve fertility in dairy buffaloes. Theriogenology 2020; 150: 173-179 DOI:

Terzano GM, Barile VL, Mongiorgi S, Borghese A. Effeto di diversi livelli alimentari sulla pubertà in bufale di razza Mediterranea. Atti 47o Conv. S.I.S. Vet. 1993; Riccione: 1803-1807.

Bodla MT, Anwar M, Ahmad E, Naseer Z, Ahsan U. Effect of two management systems and mineral feeding on age at puberty in Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers. Buffalo Bulletin 2017; 36(1): 27-33.

Zicarelli L. Management in different environmental conditions. Buf J 1994; Suppl. 2: 17-38.

Borghese A, Barile VL, Terzano GM, Pilla AM, Parmeggiani A. Melatonin trend during season in heifers and buffalo cows. Bubalus Bubalis 1995; 1: 61-65

Cerón-Muñoz MF, Agudelo-Gómez DA, Ramírez-Arias JP. Estacionalidad de partos de búfalas en Colombia. Livest Res Rural Dev 2017; 29: Article 38.

Baruselli PS. Manejo reprodutivo de bubalinos. Inst. Zoot. Estacao Esperimental de Zootecniq do Vale do Ribeira, Registro SP., Brazil, 1993.

Abdel-Latif MA, El-Gohary ES, Gabr AA, El-Hawary AF, Ahmed SA, Ebrahim SA, Fathala MM. Impact of supplementing propylene glycol and calcium propionate to primiparous buffalo cows during the late gestation and early lactation period on reproductive performance and metabolic parameters. Alex J Vet Sci 2016; 51(1): 114-121. DOI:

Hansen HH, El-Bordeny NE, Ebeid HM. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation. Animal Nutrition 2017; 3: 411-418. DOI:

Ahmad Para I, Ahmad Shah M, Punetha M, Hussain Dar A, Rautela A, Gupta D, Singh M, Ahmad Naik M, Rayees M, Sikander Dar P, Ahmad Malla B. Feed fortification of periparturient Murrah buffaloes with dietary yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) elevates metabolic and fertility indices under field conditions. Biol Rhythm Res 2019. DOI:

Zicarelli L. Note comparative di fisiopatologia della riproduzione tra le specie bovina e bufalina. Proc Giornate Buiatriche 1997; p. 84-104.

Nazir G, Ghuman SP, Singh J, Honparkhe M, Ahuja CS, Dhaliwal GS, Sangha MK, Saijpaul S, Agarwal SK. Improvement of conception rate in postpartum flaxseed supplemented buffalo with Ovsynch+CIDR protocol. Anim Reprod Sci 2013; 137(1-2): 15-22. DOI:

Ezzo OH. The effects of vitamins and Se supplementation on serum vitamin level and some reproductive patterns in Egyptian buffaloes during pre and postpartum periods. Buffalo Journal 1995; 11: 103-107.

Panda N, Kaur H, Mohanty TK. Reproductive performance of dairy buffaloes supplemented with varying levels of vitamin E. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2006; 19: 19-25. DOI:

Reddy NA, Venkata Seshiah Ch, Sudhakar K, Srinivasa Kumar D, Kanth Reddy PR. Effects of shortened dry period on the physical indicators of energy reserves mobilization in high yielding Murrah buffaloes. Indian J Anim Res 2018; 52(11): 1656-1660. DOI:

Viana RB, Monteiro MB, Cardoso Da Cruz E, Ribeiro Filho JD, Albuquerque RDS, Albuquerque de Melo PM, Baruselli PS. Can mineral supplementation modify the characteristics

of young buffalo ejaculate? Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina 2019; 40(5): 2271-2286. DOI:

Garb AAW, El Basuini MF. Effect of tonophosphan, zinc oxide, and ascorbic acid on semen, sexual desire, and the fertility rate of Egyptian buffalo bulls. Annals Agric Sci 2018; 63: 215–221. DOI:

Singh PK, Kamboj ML, Kumar N. Effect of dummy calf, weaning and suckling on the reproductive performance of post-partum Murrah buffaloes. Indian J Anim Res 2016; 50 (2): 265-267. DOI:

De la Cruz-Cruz LA, Bonilla-Jaime H, Orozco-Gregorio H, Tarazona-Morales AM, Ballesteros-Rodea G, Roldan-Santiago P, Waytula M, Vargas-Romero JM. Effects of weaning on the stress responses and productivity of water buffalo in different breeding systems: a review. Livest Sci 2019; 226: 73-81. DOI:

Shalaby NA, Oudah EZM, El-Sharkawy YMS. Comparison between some productive and reproductive traits and genetic parameters in the first three lactations in Egyptian buffaloes. J. Animal and Poultry Prod Mansoura Univ 2016; 7(3): 113-119. DOI:

Lucy MC. Symposium review: Selection for fertility in the modern dairy cow-Current status and future direction for genetic selection. J Dairy Sci 2019; 102(4): 3706-3721. DOI:

Jenkins GM, Amer P, Stachowicz K, Meier S. Phenotypic associations between gestation length and production, fertility, survival, and calf traits. J Dairy Sci 2016: 99: 418-426. DOI:

Gobikrushanth M, Bruinjé TC, Colazo MG, Butler ST, Ambrose DJ. Characterization of anogenital distance and its relationship to fertility in lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 2017; 100: 9815-9823. DOI:

Akbarinejad V, Gharagozlou F, Vojgani M, Shourabi E, Makiabadi MJM. Inferior fertility and higher concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in dairy cows with longer anogenital distance (AGD). Dom Animal Endocrinol 2019; 68: 47-53. DOI:

Gobikrushanth M, Purfield DC, Kenneally J, Doyle RC, Holden SA, Martinez PM, Rojas Canadas E, Bruinjé TC, Colazo MG, Ambrose DJ, Butler ST. The relationship between anogenital distance and fertility, and genome-wide associations for anogenital distance in Irish Holstein-Friesian cows. J Dairy Sci 2019; 102: 1-10 DOI:

Dechow, CD, Rogers GW, Clay JS. Heritability and correlations among body condition score loss, body condition score, production and reproductive performance. J Dairy Sci 2002; 85: 3062-3070. DOI:

Berry DP, Buckley F, Dillon P, Evans RD, Rath M, Veerkamp RF. Genetic parameters for body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility estimated using random regression models. J Dairy Sci 2003; 86: 3704-3717. DOI:

Weigel KA. Prospects for improving reproductive performance through genetic selection. Anim Reprod Sci 2006; 96: 323-330. DOI:

Moore SG, Fair T, Lonergan P, Butler ST. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: IV. Transition period, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity. J Dairy Sci 2014; 97: 2740-2752. DOI:

Dash S, Chakravarty AK, Singh A, Upadhyay A, Singh M, Yousuf S. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A Review. Veterinary World 2016; 9(3): 235-244. DOI:

Zicarelli L. Influence of seasonality on buffalo production. In: Precisse GA, editor. The Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)-Production and Research. Sharjah, UAE: Bentham Science Publishers; 2017; p.196-224. DOI:

Das GK, Khan FA. Summer anoestrus in buffalo–a review. Reprod Dom Anim 2010; 45(6): e483-e494. DOI:

Rao TKS, Kumar N, Kumar P, Chaurasia S, Patel NB. Heat detection techniques in cattle and buffalo. Veterinary World 2013; 6(6): 363-369. DOI:

Barile LV. Technologies related with the artificial insemination in buffalo. J Buffalo Sci 2012; 1: 139-146. DOI:

Zicarelli L. Considerations on the breeding and weaning of buffalo calf. J Buffalo Sci 2020; 9: 84-91. DOI:

Campanile G, Di Palo R, Infascelli F, Gasparrini B, Neglia G, Zicarelli F, D’Occhio MJ. Influence of rumen protein degradability on productive and reproductive performance in buffalo cows. Repr Nutr Dev 2003; 43: 557-566. DOI:

Campanile G, Neglia G, Di Palo R, Gasparrini B, Pacelli C, D’Occhio MJ, Zicarelli L. Relationship of body condition score and blood urea and ammonia to pregnancy in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. Reprod Nutr Dev 2006; 46: 57-62. DOI:

Mujibi FDN, Crews DH. Genetic parameters for calving ease, gestation length, and birth weight in Charolais cattle. J Anim Sci 2009; 87 (9): 2759-2766. DOI:

Norman HD, Wright JR, Kuhn MT, Hubbard SM, Cole JB, VanRaden, PM. Genetic and environmental factors that affect gestation length in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 2009; 92(5): 2259-2269. DOI:




How to Cite

Nava-Trujillo, H. ., Valeris-Chacin, R. ., Morgado-Osorio, A. ., Zambrano-Salas, S. ., Tovar-Breto, L. ., & Quintero-Moreno, A. . (2020). Reproductive Performance of Water Buffalo Cows: A Review of Affecting Factors. Journal of Buffalo Science, 9, 133–151.




Most read articles by the same author(s)