Effect of Nutritional Status and Associated Factors on Pneumonia Treatment Outcome among Under-Five Children at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


  • Bizuhareg Teka Hailemariam Department of Nutrition, Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • Tesfaye Girma Legesse Department of Nutrition, Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • Kassahun Alemu Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar




Nutritional Status, Pneumonia, Treatment Outcome, Children.


Acute respiratory infection is still a major health problem among under-five children specifically in Ethiopia, where 38% of them are reported as living in the status of under-nutrition. However, there are studies limitation regarding the relationship of nutritional status of under-five children and outcome of pneumonia treatment. Institutional based cross-sectional study design had been employed to see the Effect of nutritional status and associated factors on pneumonia treatment outcome among under-five children in 2015. Data was collected using interview administered structured questionnaires and anthropometric measurement.

The study revealed that high probability of poor pneumonia treatment outcome 26(40%) among exposed groups. Those children to house wife mothers 11(16.92%), smoker family member 6(9.23%), non-fully immunized 9(13.85%), less than 500birr spent for a child 26(40%) are observed to be with poor pneumonia treatment outcome. The risk of poor pneumonia treatment outcome was 4 times and 5 times more like among children who lives with smoker family member and exposed groups respectively. But it was 0.075 and 0.05 times less like among Children from urban and whom their monthly budget is 1000 birr or more respectively.

Child nutritional status has significant effect on pneumonia treatment outcome among under-five children. Undernourishment, smoker family member, rural residency, monthly budget are among factors impact pneumonia treatment outcome. Nutritional education, Mother education, Employing mothers, Budgeting more than 500 birr per child per month, alleviate smoking among the family member, Limiting family members number per house hold, All children should feed colostrums and Full immunization should be done.


ICF International. Children’s Health and Nutritional Status: Data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ICF International 2012.
[2] MFED. Assessing Progress towards The Millenium Development Goals. ETHIOPIA MDGs REPORT 2012. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ministry of Finance and Economic Development Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 2012.
[3] United Nations. The Millennium Development Goals Report. 2009.
[4] UNICEF. Childinfo 2009 [cited 2015 June 10]. Available from: http://www.childinfo.org/index.html.
[5] EDHS. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Calverton, Maryland, USA: Central Statistical Agency and ICF International.: ICF International 2012.
[6] Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Campbell H Bull World Health Organ 2008; 86(408-16).
[7] Arpitha G., Rehman MA., Ashwitha G. Effect of Severity of Malnutrition on Pneumonia in Childern Aged 2M-5Y at a Tertiary Care Center in Khammam, Andhra Pradesh: A Clinical Study. Sch J App Med Sci 2014; 2(6E): 3199-203.
[8] Kapç? N, Akçam M, Koca T, Dereci S, Kapc? M. The nutritional status of hospitalized children: Has this subject been overlooked? Turk J Gastroenterol 2015; 26.
[9] Rahman SS, Khatun A, Azhar BS, Rahman H, Hossain S. A Study on the Relationship between Nutritional Status and Prevalence of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea among Preschool Children in Kushtia. Pediatrics Research International Journal 2014; 2014: 1-10.
[10] Fischer Walker CL, Rudan I, Liu L, Nair H, Theodoratou E, Bhutta ZA, et al. Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea. Lancet 2013; 318: 1405-16.
[11] UNICEF. Pneumonia and diarrhoea: Tackling the deadliest diseases for the world’s poorest children Pneumonia and diarrhoea. New York, NY 10017: 2012.
[12] UNICEF, WHO. Pneumonia: The forgotten killer of children 2006.
[13] WHO, UNICEF. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Handbook. Geneva: World Health Organization 2005.
[14] Sazawal S, Black RE. Effect of Pneumonia Case Management on Mortality in Neonates, Infants, and Preschool Children: A Meta-Analysis of Community-Based Trials. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2003; 3: 547-56.
[15] WHO, UNICEF. Joint Statement on Management of Pneumonia in the Community. New York 2004.
[16] UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. Levels and trends in child mortality. New York: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund 2012.
[17] Fekadu GA, Terefe MW, Alemie GA. Prevalence of pneumonia among under- five children in Este town and the surrounding rural kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia; A community based cross sectional study. Science Journal of Public Health 2014; 2(3): 150-5.
[18] Lopez MA, Rodgers A, Murray C. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: The Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors. Geneva: World Health Organization 2004.
[19] Black RE. Zinc Deficiency, Infectious Disease and Mortality in the Developing World. Journal of Nutrition 2003; 133: 14855-95.
[20] Fonseca W, Kirkwood BR, Victora CG, Fuchs SR, Flores JA, Misago C. Risk factors for childhood Pneumonia among the urban poor Forteleza, Brazil: A case control study. Bull World Health Organ 1996; 74(2): 199-208.






General Articles