Prevalence of Stunting and Associated Factors in Children of 6-59 Months' Old in Ethiopia
Keywords:Malnutrition, Stunting, Wasting, underweight, Ethiopia.
Introduction: Malnutrition among under-5 year children is a common public health problem and it is one of the main reasons for the death of children in developing countries. About 35% of under-five children’s death is associated with malnutrition globally. There are 165 million stunted, 99 million under-weighted, and 51 million wasted children globally. In Ethiopia, more than half of child deaths are associated with malnutrition. The objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting and associated factors in children of 6-59 months old in central Tigray, Ethiopia.
Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in children of 6-59 months of age with a total sample size of 420. Systematic random sampling method was used. Data were coded and entered in the computer using SPSS version 20 Software and world health organization anthropometric version 3.3 was used to convert these nutritional data into Z-scores of the induces. Descriptive summary using frequencies, proportions, graphs and cross tabs is used to present study result. Binary Logistic regression analysis was carried out at two levels to identify factors associated with stunting
Result: The prevalence of stunting is 47% and variables like age of the mother, duration of breastfeeding and the way how to feed the child was the variable that had statistical significantly associated with stunting.
Conclusion: The prevalence of stunting is high and consistent as compared to other studies done in Ethiopia. This indicates that malnutrition among under-five in central Tigray is comparable with other regional states of Ethiopia.
 Muller O, Krawinkel M. Malnutrition and health in developing countries. CMAJ 2005; 173(3): 279-86.
 Blössner M, Onis M De. Malnutrition: quantifying the health impact at national and local levels. Geneva, World Health Organization. Environ Burd Dis Ser 2005; 12(12): 43.
 Blo M, Borghi E, Frongillo EA, Morris R. Underweight in 1990 and 2015. 2015; 291(21).
 Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, de Onis M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet (London, England) 2013; 382(9890): 427-51.
 Mahgoub SEO, Nnyepi M, Bandeke T. Factors affecting prevalence of malnutrition among children under three years of age in botswana etendue ET types de malnutrition et les facteurs Y botswana résumé 2006; 6(1).
 Menber Y, Tsegaye D, Woday A, Cherie H, Kebede S. Journal of Clinical & Cellular Prevalence of Stunting and Associated Factors among School Age Children in Primary Schools of Haik Town, South Wollo Zone, North 2018; 9(1): 1-7.
 Nutrition TOA. Actions and accountability 2015;
 Onis M De, Dewey KG, Borghi E, Onyango AW, Blössner M, Daelmans B, et al. Orginal Article The World Health Organization ’ s global target for reducing childhood stunting by 2025: rationale and proposed actions 2013; 9: 6-26.
 Gillespie S, Haddad L, Mannar V, Menon P, Nisbett N. The politics of reducing malnutrition: building commitment and accelerating progress. Lancet [Internet]. 2013; 382(9891): 552-69.
 Geberselassie SB, Abebe SM, Melsew A, Mutuku SM, Wassie MM. Prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-Kemekem district, Northwest Ethiopia?; A community based cross sectional study 2018; 1-11.
 Cervantes E, San A. Malnutrition and Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Infections in Children?: A Public Health Problem 2011; 1174-205.
 Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Rizvi A, Gaffey MF, Walker N, Horton S, et al. Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost? Lancet [Internet] 2013; 382(9890): 452-77.
 Zerihun E, Id T, Abebe GA, Melketsedik ZA. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and thinness among school-age children in Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Southern 2018; 1-12.
 Victora CG, Adair L, Fall C, Hallal PC, Martorell R, Richter L, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. Lancet (London, England) 2008; 371(9609): 340-57.
 Grantham-McGregor S, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet (London, England) 2007; 369(9555): 60-70.
 District K, Stalin P, Bazroy J, Dimri D, Singh Z, Senthilvel V, et al. Prevalence of Underweight and its Risk Factors among Under Five Children in Prevalence of Underweight and its Risk Factors among Under Five Children in a Rural Area of Kancheepuram District in Tamil Nadu, India 2013; (June 2014).
 Alemu F. Assessment of the impact of malnutrition on children at Dilla referral hospital and unity pediatric clinic, Ethiopia 2013; 5(6): 105-13.
 Lancet. prevalence of stunting in low and middle income country. The Lancet 2014.
 Security F. Determinants of Undernutrition in Children Under 2 Years of Age From Rural Bangladesh 2012; 2-5.
 A AK, Bignell W, Winful S, Soy I, Steiner-Asiedu M. Risk Factors for Malnutrition among Children 5-years and Younger in the Akuapim-North District in the Eastern Region of Ghana 2010; 2(3): 183-8.
 UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group. Levels and trends in child malnutrition 2018. Jt Child Malnutrition Estim 2018 Ed [Internet]. 2018; 1-15. Available from: http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/estimates2017/en/
 Poverty D. Tackling Child Malnutrition in Ethiopia:
 Aemro M, Mesele M, Birhanu Z, Atenafu A. Dietary Diversity and Meal Frequency Practices among Infant and Young Children Aged 6-23 Months in Ethiopia?: A Secondary Analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011. 2013; 2013.
 Ma’alin A, Birhanu D, Melaku S, Tolossa D, Mohammed Y, Gebremicheal K. Magnitude and factors associated with malnutrition in children 6-59 months of age in Shinille Woreda, Ethiopian Somali regional state: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nutr [Internet] 2016; 2(1): 44.
 Edris M. Assessment of nutritional status of preschool children of.
 Democratic F, Of R. federal democratic republic of ETHIOPIA national nutrition 2020.
 Amare B, Moges B, Fantahun B, Tafess K, Woldeyohannes D, Yismaw G, et al. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia. Nutr J 2012; 11: 108.
 Beyene TT. Predictors of Nutritional Status of Children Visiting Health Facilities in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia 2012; 1(1): 1-13.
 Practices SC, Mayer A. The causes of malnutrition in children under 3 in the Somali Region of Ethiopia related to household caring practices Preliminary Report 2007; 1-84.
 Haileslassie K, Mulugeta A, Girma M. Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. Nutr J 2013; 12: 1-11.
 Iftikhar A, Bari A, Bano I, Masood Q. Impact of maternal education, employment and family size on nutritional status of children. Pakistan J Med Sci 2017; 33(6): 1401-5.
 De Onis M, Frongillo EA, Blössner M. Is malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980. Bull World Health Organ 2000; 78(10): 1222
 Abeway S, Gebremichael B, Murugan R, Assefa M, Adinew YM. Stunting and Its Determinants among Children Aged 6 - 59 Months in Northern Ethiopia?: A Cross-Sectional Study 2018; 2018.
 Town L, Town L. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Stunting, Underweight and Wasting?: A Community Based Cross Sectional Study among Children Age 6-59 Months Nutritional Disorders & Therapy Prevalence and Factors Associated with Stunting, Underweight and Wasting 2016.
 Bogale TY, Bala ET, Tadesse M, Asamoah BO. Prevalence and associated factors for stunting among 6 - 12 years old school age children from rural community of Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia 2018; 1-8.
 Mulugeta A, Hagos F, Kruseman G, Linderhof V, Stoecker B, Abraha Z, et al. Child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Vol. 87, East African Medical Journal 2010; 248-254.
 Amare B, Ali J, Moges B, Yismaw G, Belyhun Y, Gebretsadik S, et al. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in northwest Ethiopia. BMC Pediatr 2013; 13: 7.
 Central Statistical Agency (CSA) [Ethiopia] and ICF. 2016. EDHS 2016. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: CSA and ICF [Internet]. 2017. Available from: https: //dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR328/FR328.pdf
 Berhanu G, Mekonnen S, Sisay M. Prevalence of stunting and associated factors among preschool children?: A community based comparative cross sectional study in Ethiopia 2018; 1-15.
 Mihretie Y. iMedPub Journals Assessment of Stunting, Wasting Rate and Associated Factors among Children 0-59 Months at Jigjiga Town in Somali Regional State, Ethiopia Abstract 2018; 1-4.
 Belachew, et al. Acute and Chronic Malnutrition in Children.For the Ethiopian Health Center Team.Produced in Collaboration with the Ethiopian Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, The Ethiopian Ministry of Health and the Ethiopian Ministry of Education. Jimm 2005.
Policy for Journals/Articles with Open Access
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post links to their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work
Policy for Journals / Manuscript with Paid Access
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Publisher retain copyright .
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post links to their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work .