Physiological and Behavioral Changes of Water Buffalo in Hot and Cold Systems: Review


  • Ariadna Yáñez-Pizaña Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad del Valle de México-Coyoacán, Calzada de Tlalpan 04910, CDMX, México
  • uis Alberto de la Cruz-Cruz Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud, Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad del Valle de México-Coyoacán, Calzada de Tlalpan 04910, CDMX, México
  • Ariel Tarazona-Morales Departamento de Producción Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, C.P. 050034, Medellín, Colombia
  • Patricia Roldan-Santiago Departamento de Reproducción, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad, Colonia, C.U. C.P. 04510 Ciudad de México, México
  • G. Ballesteros-Rodea Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (UASLP), San Luis Potosí 78321, México
  • Raym Pineda-Reyes Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (UASLP), San Luis Potosí 78321, México
  • Héctor Orozco-Gregorio Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (UASLP), San Luis Potosí 78321, México



Cold stress, thermal stress, microclimate, behavior, welfare.


This review's objective is to provide information on the mechanisms that buffaloes express during the thermoregulation process. Generally, the water buffalo is associated with warm and tropical climates. In these systems, the combination of high temperature, relative humidity, and radiation cause different physiological and behavioral changes, particularly during the summer months. Wallowing behavior in water or mud promotes heat dissipation through physical mechanisms, such as conduction, convection, and radiation. Furthermore, the provision of natural or artificial shades contributes to thermoregulation and maintains homeostasis. In production systems in cold climates, the wallowing behavior is inhibited by the water temperature, so it is important to keep the animals protected in stables to avoid the cold winds and rapid drops in temperature, causing increased illness pneumonia and sometimes death. Finally, in cold conditions, the animals require an appropriate diet since the use of energy is distributed mainly for the production of heat. Thus, heat stress and cold stress generates relevant problems in health, welfare, and productivity in water buffaloes. A comprehensive assessment of the severity of the resulting problems associated with thermal stress and specialty in cold stress in water buffaloes is necessary so far, and there's very little information about it in this species.


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How to Cite

Yáñez-Pizaña, A. . . ., Cruz-Cruz, uis . . A. . . de . . la . . ., Tarazona-Morales, A., Roldan-Santiago, P., Ballesteros-Rodea, G., Pineda-Reyes, R., & Orozco-Gregorio, H. (2020). Physiological and Behavioral Changes of Water Buffalo in Hot and Cold Systems: Review. Journal of Buffalo Science, 9, 110–120.




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