Probiotics for everyone! The novel immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 and the beginning of Social Probiotic Programs in Argentina

Authors

  • Julio Villena Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Biochemistry. Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CCT-CONICET). Tucumán, Argentina.
  • Susana Salva Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Biochemistry. Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CCT-CONICET).
  • Martha Núñez Laboratory of Experimental Foods. Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CCT-CONICET).
  • Josefina Corzo Nutrition Division. Integrated Health Programs. Ministry of Public Health. Government of Tucuman.
  • René Tolaba Del Niño Jesus Children Hospital, Pasaje Hungría 750, CP4000, San Miguel de Tucumán
  • Julio Faedda Del Niño Jesus Children Hospital, Pasaje Hungría 750, CP4000, San Miguel de Tucumán
  • Graciela Font Laboratory of Technology and Development. Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CCT-CONICET).
  • Susana Alvarez Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Biochemistry. Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CCT-CONICET).

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-3037/2012.01.03.05

Keywords:

Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, children, mucosal immunity, respiratory infections

Abstract

Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr1505) stimulates immune responses in the gut and in the respiratory tract and improves resistance against Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. Considering that respiratory infectious diseases continue to be a major cause of death among preschool children in developing countries, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Lr1505 on the health of children. A randomized-controlled double-blind clinical trial in 298 healthy children (2-5 years old), attending daycare centers was performed. Yogurt containing Lr1505 was administered to children for 6 months (five times a week). Results were statistically compared with those of children from the same community that received a placebo yogurt (without probiotic). Administration of Lr1505 to young children reduced the incidence of infections: 66% of children in the placebo group presented symptoms of infection while only 34% of cases were detected in the Lr1505 group. Significant differences (P<0.05) were detected in the incidence of intestinal infections, upper respiratory tract infections and angina when placebo and Lr1505 groups were compared. Children fed Lr1505 experienced fewer fevers and needed fewer antibiotics than those receiving the placebo. The protective effect of Lr1505 was associated with increased levels of mucosal IgA antibodies. Lr1505 is a promising resource for the development of prevention strategies against mucosal infections that could be effective tools for medical application. This new probiotic strain has been included into official Nutritional Programs in Argentina and it is given to more than 200 thousand children. This project has encouraged local milk production, thanks to the constant demand of probiotic yogurt containing L. rhamnosus CRL1505 by provincial governments, while incorporating innovation to small and medium enterprises.

References

[1] Hanchette C, Schwartz G. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer 1992; 70: 2861-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19921215)70:12<2861::AID-CNCR2820701224>3.0.CO;2-G
[2] Luscombe CJ, Fryer AA, French ME, et al. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation: association with susceptibility and age at presentation with prostate cancer. Lancet 2001; 358(9282): 641-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(01)05788-9
[3] Robsahm TE, Tretli S, Dahlback A, Moan J. Vitamin D3 from sunlight may improve the prognosis of breast-,colon-, and prostate cancer (Norway) 2004. Cancer Causes Control 2004; 15: 149-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:CACO.0000019494.34403.09
[4] Bao BY, Ting HJ, Hsu JW, Lee YF. Protective role of 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
[vitamin D3] against oxidative stress in non-malignant human prostate epithelial cells.Int J Cancer2008; 122: 2699-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23460
[5] Ahonen MH, Tenkanen L, Teppo L, Hakama M, Tuohimaa P. Prostate cancer risk and prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 847-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008923802001
[6] Tuohimaa P, Tenkanen L, Ahonen M, et al. Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case-control study in the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer 2004; 108: 104-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11375
[7] Rodriguez C, Patel AV, Calle EE, et al. Body mass index, height, and prostate cancer mortality in two large cohorts of adult men in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers 2001; 10: 345-53.
[8] Hsing AW, Deng J, Sesterhenn IA, et al. Body size and prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000; 9: 1335-41.
[9] Putnam SD, Cerhan JR, Parker AS, et al. Lifestyle and anthropometric risk factors for prostate cancer in a cohort of Iowa men. Ann Epidemiol 2000; 10: 361-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(00)00057-0
[10] Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, et al. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res1998; 58: 442-7.
[11] Connolly JM, Coleman M, Rose DP. Effects of dietary fatty acids on DU145 human prostate cancer cell growth in athymic nude mice. Nutr Cancer 1997; 29: 114-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635589709514611
[12] Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with a reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr2004; 134: 919-22.
[13] Chyou PH, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN, Hankin JH. A prospective study of alcohol, diet, and other lifestyle factors in relation to obstructive uropathy. Prostate 1993; 22: 253-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.2990220308
[14] De Rosa G, Corsello SM, Ruffilli MP, Della Casa S, Pasargiklian E. Prolactin secretion after beer. Lancet1981; 2: 934. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(81)91422-7
[15] Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80: 204-16.
[16] Pham H, Ziboh V. 5-alpha-reductasecatalyzed conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone is increases in prostatic adenocarcinoma cells: suppression by lipoxygenase metabolites of gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2002; 82: 393-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-0760(02)00217-0
[17] U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl. Accessed: May 23, 2012.
[18] Schrauzer G. The nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicology of selenomethionine. Adv Food Nutr Res 2003: 47: 73-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1043-4526(03)47002-2
[19] Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin: a randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study. JAMA 1996; 276: 1957-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03540240035027
[20] Zigler R. Vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids and the risk of cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 2515-95.
[21] Waladkhani A, Clemens M. Effect of dietary phytochemicals on cancer development. Int J Mol Med 1998; 1: 747-53.
[22] Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Persky V, et al. Dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C, and risk of prostate cancer: Results from the Western Electric Study. Epidemiology 1996; 7: 472-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001648-199609000-00003
[23] Block G. Epidemiologic evidence regarding vitamin C and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54(Suppl 6): 1310S-4S.
[24] Shibata A, Paganini-Hill A, Ross RK, Henderson BE. Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study. Br J Cancer 1992; 66: 673-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1992.336
[25] Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, et al. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. Lancet 2001; 357: 657-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04128-3
[26] Maramag C, Menon M, Balaji KC, Reddy PG, Laxmanan S. Effect of vitamin C on prostate cancer cells in vitro: effect on cell number, viability, and DNA synthesis. Prostate 1997; 32: 188-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0045(19970801)32:3<188::AID-PROS5>3.0.CO;2-H
[27] Willis M, Wians F. The role of nutrition in preventing prostate cancer: a review of the proposed mechanism of action of various dietary substances. Clinica Chimica Acta 2003; 330: 57-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-8981(03)00048-2
[28] Franceschi S, Bidoli E, La Vecchia C, et al. Tomatoes and risk of digestive-tract cancers. Int J Cancer 1994; 59: 181-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.2910590207
[29] Gerster H. The potential role of lycopene for human health. J Am College Nutr 1997; 16: 109-26.
[30] Rao AV, Fleshner N, Agarwal S. Serum and tissue lycopene and biomarkers of oxidation in prostate cancer patients: a case-control study. Nutr Cancer 1999; 33: 159-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327914NC330207
[31] Etminan M, Takkouche B, Caamano-Isorna F. The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 340-5.
[32] Basu A, Imrhan V. Tomatoes versus lycopene in oxidative stress and carcinogenesis: conclusions from clinical trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007: 61; 295-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602510
[33] Kim HS, Bowen P, Chen L, et al. Effects of tomato sauce consumption on apoptotic cell death in prostate benign hyperplasia and carcinoma. Nutr Cancer 2003; 47: 40-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc4701_5
[34] Grant W. An ecologic study of dietary links to prostate cancer. Altern Med Rev 1999; 4: 162-9.
[35] Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels; results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 1225-30.
[36] Bendich A, Olson JA. Biological action of carotenoids. FASEB J 1989; 3: 1927-32.
[37] Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of carotenoids and retinal in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Nat Cancer Inst1995; 87: 1767-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/87.23.1767
[38] Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl CancerInst 2002; 94: 391-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/94.5.391
[39] Sandmann G. Carotenoid biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants. Eur J Biochem 1994; 223: 7-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.tb18961.x
[40] Di Mascio P, Kaiser S, Sies H. Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys 1989; 274: 532-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(89)90467-0
[41] Siler U, Barella L, Spitzer V, et al. Lycopene and vitamin E interfere with autocrine/paracrine loops in the Dunning prostate cancer model. FASEB J 2004; 18: 1019-21.
[42] Craig W. Phytochemicals: guardians of our health. J Am Diet Assoc 1997; 97: S199-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(97)00765-7
[43] Rao CV, Rivenson A, Simi B, Reddy BS. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by dietary curcumin, a naturally occurring plant phenolic compound. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 259-66.
[44] Huang MT, Newmark HL, Frenkel K. Inhibitory effects of curcumin on tumorigenesis in mice. J Cell Biochem Suppl1997; 27: 26-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(1997)27+<26::AID-JCB7>3.0.CO;2-3
[45] Hanif R, Qiao L, Shiff SJ, Rigas B. Curcumin, a natural plant phenolic food additive, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell cycle changes in colon adenocarcinoma lines by a prostaglandin-independent pathway. J Lab Clin Med 1997; 130: 576-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2143(97)90107-4
[46] Nagabhushan M and Bhide S. Curcumin as an inhibitor of cancer. J Am Coll Nutr 1992; 11:192-8.
[47] Deeb D, Jiang H, Gao X, et al. Curcumin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo2L by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa through suppression of 1kappaBalpha phosphorylation. Mol Cancer Ther 2004; 3: 803-12.
[48] Dorai T, Dutcher JP, Dempster DW, Wiernik PH. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in prostate cancer—V: Interference with the osteomimetic properties of hormone refractory C4-2B prostate cancer cells. Prostate2004; 60: 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.10359
[49] Chendil D, Ranga RS, Meigooni D, Sathishkumar S, Ahmed MM. Curcumin confers radio-sensitizing effect in prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Oncogene 2004; 26: 1599-607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1207284
[50] Sharma RA, Gescher AJ, Steward WP. Curcumin: the story so far. Eur J Cancer 2005; 41: 1955-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2005.05.009
[51] Yun TK. Update from Asia: Asian studies on cancer chemoprevention. Ann NY Acad Sci1999; 889: 157-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08734.x
[52] Saleem M, Adhami VM, Siddiqui IA, Mukhtar H. Tea beverage in chemoprevention of prostate cancer: a mini-review. Nutr Cancer 2003; 47: 13-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc4701_2
[53] Jian L, Xie LP, Lee AH, Binns CW. Protective effect of green tea against prostate cancer: a case-control study in southeast China. Int J Cancer 2004; 108: 130-5.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11550
[54] Cao Y, Cao R. Angiogenesis inhibited by drinking tea. Nature 1999; 398: 381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/18793
[55] Liao S, Hiipakka R. Selective inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes by tea epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Biochem Biophys Res 1995; 214: 833-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1995.2362
[56] Gupta S, Ahmad N, Mohan RR, Husain MM, Mukhtar H. Prostate cancer chemoprevention by green tea: in vitro and in vivo inhibition of testosterone-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 2115-20.
[57] Kanwar J, Taskeen M, Mohammad I, et al. Recent advances on tea polyphenols. Front Biosci 2012; 4: 111-31.
[58] Yu HN, Yin JJ, Shen SR. Growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells by epigallocatechin gallate in the presence of CU2+. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 111: 462-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf035057u
[59] Bhatia N, Agarwal R. Detrimental effect of cancer preventive phytochemicals silymarin, genistein, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate on epigenetic events in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells. Prostate 2001; 46: 98-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0045(20010201)46:2<98::AID-PROS1013>3.0.CO;2-K
[60] Brusselmans K, De Schrijver E, Heyns W, Verhoeven G, Swinnen JV. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is a potent natural inhibitor of fatty acid synthase intact cells and selectively induces apoptosis in prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 2003; 106: 856-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11317
[61] Nam S, Smith DM, Dou QP. Ester bond containing tea polyphenols potently inhibit proteasome activity in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 1322-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M004209200
[62] Hussain T, Gupta S, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H. Green tea constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate selectively inhibits COX-2 without affecting COX expression in human prostate carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer 2005; 113: 660-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.20629
[63] Paschka AG, Butler R, Young CY. Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines by the green tea component,()-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Cancer Lett 1998; 130: 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(98)00084-6
[64] Stuart EC, Scandlyn MJ, Rosengren RJ. Role of epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer. Life Sci 2006; 79: 2329-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2006.07.036
[65] Jatoi A, Ellison N, Burch PA, et al. A phase II trial of green tea in the treatment of patients with androgen independent metastatic prostate carcinoma. Cancer2003; 97: 1442-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.11200
[66] Day N. Phyto-estrogens and hormonally dependent cancers. Pathol Biol 1994; 42: 1090.
[67] Sarkar F, Li Y. Soy isoflavones and cancer prevention. Cancer Invest 2003; 21: 744-57.http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CNV-120023773
[68] Morton MS, Griffiths K, Blacklock N. The preventive role of diet in prostatic disease. Br J Urol 1996; 77: 481-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1464-410X.1996.09361.x
[69] Lee MM, Gomez SL, Chang JS, et al. Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12: 665-8.
[70] Sarwar G, McDonough F. Evaluation of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method for assessing protein quality of foods. J Assoc Anal Chem 1990; 73: 346-56.
[71] Elias R, De Méo M, Vidal-Ollivier E, et al. Antimutagenic activity of some saponins isolated from Calendula officinalis L., C. arvensis L., and Hedera helix L. Mutangenesis1990; 5: 327-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mutage/5.4.327
[72] Baten A, Ullah A, Tomazic VJ, Shamsuddin AM. Inosito-phosphate-induced enhanced of natural killer cell activity correlates with tumor suppression. Carcinogenic 1989; 10: 1595-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/10.9.1595
[73] Adlercreutz H, Mazur W. Phyto-oestrogens and Western diseases. Ann Med 1997; 29: 95-120.
[74] Evans BA, Griffiths K, Morton MS. Inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase in genital skin fibroblasts and prostate tissue by dietary lignans and isoflavinoids. J Endocrinol 1995; 147: 295-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1470295
[75] Xu L, Ding Y, Catalona WJ, et al. MEK4 function, genistein treatment, and invasion of human prostate cancer cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101: 1141-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djp227
[76] Lakshman M, Xu L, Ananthanarayanan V, et al. Dietary genistein inhibits metastasis of human prostate cancer in mice. Cancer Res 2008; 68: 2024-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-1246
[77] St Clair WH, Billings PC, Carew JA, et al. Suppression of dimethylhydrazine-induced carcinogenesis in mice by dietary addition of the Bowman-Birk Protease inhibitor. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 580-6.
[78] Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Jarvinen R, et al. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 560-8.
[79] Leake A, Chrisholm GD, Busuttil A, Habib FK. Subcellular distribution of zinc in the benign and malignant human prostate: evidence for a direct zinc androgen interaction. Acta Endocrinol 1984; 105: 281-8
[80] Zaichick VY, Sviridova TV, Zaichick SV. Zinc concentration in human prostatic fluid. Normal, chronic prostatitis, adenoma, and cancer. Int Urol Nephrol 1996; 28: 687-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02552165
[81] Yu C, Tsai M. Fetal fetuin selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and shows anti-cancer activity in tumor animal models. Cancer Lett 2001; 166: 173-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(01)00417-7
[82] Ishii K, Usui S, Sugimura Y, et al. Aminopeptidase N regulated by zinc in human prostate participates in tumor cell invasion. Int J Cancer 2001; 92: 49-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0215(200102)9999:9999<::AID-IJC1161>3.0.CO;2-S
[83] Login IS, Thorner MO, MacLeod RM. Zinc may have a physiological role in regulating pituitary prolactin secretion. Neuroendocrinol1983; 37: 317-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000123568
[84] Judd AM, Macleod RM, Login IS. Zinc acutely, selectively, and reversibly inhibits pituitary prolactin secretion. Brain Res 1984; 294: 190-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(84)91330-1
[85] Farnsworth WE, Slaunwhite WR Jr, Sharma M, et al. Interaction of prolactin and testosterone in the human prostate. Urol Res1981; 9: 79-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00256681
[86] Rashid SF, Moore JS, Walker E, et al. Synergistic growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells by 1 alpha Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and its 19-norhexafluoride analogs in combination with either sodium butyrate or trichostatin A. Oncogene2001; 20: 1860-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1204269
[87] Hsu JY, Feldman D, McNeal JE, Peehl DM. Reduced 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in human prostate cancer cells correlates with decreased susceptibility to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-induced growth inhibition. Cancer Res2001; 61: 2852-6.
[88] Zhao X, Feldman D. The role of vitamin D in prostate cancer. Steroid 2001; 66: 293-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-128X(00)00164-1
[89] Yang E, Burnstein K. Vitamin D inhibits G1 to S progression in LNCa prostate cancer cells through p27 Kip1 stabilization and Cdk2 mislocalization to the cytoplasm. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 46862-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M306340200
[90] LaMonica CS, Weigel NL. Vitamin D and Prostate Cancer. Exp Biol Med2004;229: 277-84.
[91] Jacobs ET, Giuliano AR, Martínez ME, et al. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitain D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitain D and the risk of prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004; 89-90: 533-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.03.063
[92] Bao BY, Ting HJ, Hsu JW, Lee YF. Protective role of 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
[vitamin D3] against oxidative stress in nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cells. Int J Cancer 2008; 122: 2699-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23460
[93] Kumar NB, Cantor A, Allen K, et al. The specific role of isoflavones in reducing prostate cancer risk. Prostate 2004; 59: 141-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.10362
[94] Moline B, Georgel P. Genetic and epigenetic regulations of prostate cancer by genistein. Drug News Perspect 2009; 22: 247-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1358/dnp.2009.22.5.1378633
[95] Fotsis T, Pepper M, Adlercreutz H, et al. Genistein, a dietary-derived inhibitor of in vitro angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 2690-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.7.2690

Downloads

Published

2012-09-19

Issue

Section

Articles