A Multilevel Analysis of Registered Sex Offender Violation Status: The Role of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Social Services


  • Donna M. Snow Alliant International University
  • George Kikuchi California State University
  • Jason Kissner California State University




Registered sex offenders, neighborhoods, spatial analysis


This research attempted to clarify the determinants of registered sex offender violations using individual-level and contextual characteristics under social disorganization theory. Data on registered sex offenders in Fresno County, CA and census data were analyzed to examine the influences of offender characteristics, neighborhood disadvantage, and accessibility to social services on violation risks. Multilevel logistic regression models indicated that those offenders living in disadvantaged neighborhoods faced a higher risk of registration violations, while such an effect was mitigated by the accessibility to social services. Based on the findings, policy implications of social services as a protective factor and strategic management of the registration policies were discussed.

Author Biographies

Donna M. Snow, Alliant International University

California School of Professional Psychology

George Kikuchi, California State University

Fresno, Department of Criminology

Jason Kissner, California State University

Fresno, Department of Criminology


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How to Cite

Snow, D. M., Kikuchi, G., & Kissner, J. (2015). A Multilevel Analysis of Registered Sex Offender Violation Status: The Role of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Social Services. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 4, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2015.04.01