Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences

Impact Evaluation of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation and Physical Activity on Bone Health Status of Elderly Population of Urban Vadodara
Pages 50-56
Annapurna Maity, Komal Chauhan, Nishita Panwar and Pooja Mistry
Published: 16 February 2015

Abstract: Background: Osteoporosis is a global public health problem affecting the ageing population and influenced by poor nutrition, lack of physical activities, and absence of supplementation on time.

Objectives: To study the impact of Calcium and vitamin D supplementation along with weight bearing exercises on bone health status of elderly.

Methods:30 elderly males and 20 elderly females having poor BMD and poor serum vitamin D were supplemented with 1000 mg calcium and 500 IU vitamin D/ day along with weight bearing exercises for a period of 3 months, along with that 60000 IU vitamin D3/week for 2 months were given to 30 males only. Serum calcium, Vitamin D, BMD, dietary calcium intake, frequency of vitamin D rich food intake, anthropometry etc. were measured at the baseline as well as after the intervention.

Results: Mean BMD T-scores (-1.1 to -2.5: osteopenia; >-2.5: osteoporosis) of the elderly males and females were significantly (p≤0.001) decreased after the intervention depicting improvement (baseline:-2.34±0.50, final:-1.86±0.61). 26.7% reduction in osteoporotic cases among males and 50 % among women was achieved. Mean serum calcium (baseline: 9.38±0.63, final: 9.46±0.61) and vitamin D level (baseline: 23.76±13.17, final: 35.48±14.84) was increased significantly (p≤0.05). 60% males and 70% females achieved vitamin D sufficiency level after the intervention. Mean physical endurance (Grip strength, standing balance, walking speed and rise from chair) scores were significantly increased in both males and females. Locomotor problems were reduced among 6.7% males and 40% females after regular weight bearing exercise and supplementation.

Conclusion:Calcium and vitamin D supplementation with daily weight bearing exercise has a preventive and curative effect on BMD and it maintains the serum calcium and vitamin D levels. Long term and high dose supplementation needs further investigation.

Keywords: Elderly, BMD, Calcium, Vitamin D, Physical Activity.
Download Full Article

Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences

Linoleic Acid Blocks the Inhibitory Effects of Caffeine on Tumour Promotion by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis in Mouse Skin
Pages 194-198
Ken Yasukawa
Published: 25 August 2015

Abstract: The present study assessed the in vivo effects of fatty acids on inflammation and carcinogenesis in mice. Fifteen fatty acids were examined for their effects on the inhibitory effect of caffeine on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear oedema in mice. Furthermore, linoleic acid was studied for its effects on the inhibitory effect of caffeine on carcinogenesis in mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by TPA. Among fatty acids, linoleic, γ-linolenic and oleic acids most strongly blocked the inhibitory effect of caffeine on TPA-induced ear oedema. Furthermore, linoleic acid also markedly blocked the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the tumour-promoting activity of TPA. This is the first report to suggest that fatty acids, such as linoleic, γ-linolenic and oleic acids, block the anti-inflammatory activity of caffeine on TPA-induced inflammation in mice. Linoleic acid blocked the inhibitory effect of caffeine on tumour promotion by TPA in the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. These results suggest that intake of linoleic acid requires attention.

Keywords: Caffeine, fatty acid, linoleic acid, tumour promotion, two-stage carcinogenesis.

Download Full Article

Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences

The Hunger Games: A Systematic Review of Pediatric Bariatric Surgery
Pages 143-156
Arianne N. Theodorous, David M. Schwartzberg and Sathyaprasad C. Burjonrappa
Published: 25 May 2015

Abstract: Introduction: As childhood obesity in the US reaches alarming levels, bariatric surgery is becoming a more commonly implemented treatment option due to its high success rate compared with behavioral modification and medical therapy alone. The mechanisms by which it affects body weight and metabolic homeostasis are not well understood. The goal of the present study was to perform a systematic review of pediatric bariatric surgery to evaluate its effectiveness in the context of the physiologic changes that are produced.

Materials and Methods: The PubMed database, MEDLINE, Springer Link, Cochrane, and article bibliographies were used to identify original English-language articles published between 2009 and 2014 evaluating pediatric patients. Included studies evaluated patients undergoing Roux en Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and analyzed weight loss, BMI reduction, postoperative complications and co-morbidity resolution post-procedure; all articles had at least a one year follow up.

Results: Five studies were included in our evaluation of the three most common bariatric procedures currently performed on the pediatric population for a total of 1,395 patients. The average patient age was 18.2 and 72% of patients were females. Most patients underwent roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n=659), followed by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) (n=554) and finally laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) (n=149). The greatest decrease in BMI was seen in the RYGB group who lost an average BMI of 16.7kg/m2, followed by the LSG group with a loss of 14.0kg/m2. The LAGB patients lost 8.2kg/m2. Postoperative complications varied in severity, however the only death occurred in a patient following RYGB.

Conclusion:Bariatric surgery has proven to reduce BMI and weight in the adolescent population resulting in an enhanced quality of life and resolution of significant co-morbidities. The mechanism of weight loss is different among the three most common procedures, as is their affect on gut hormone profiles. Ghrelin may have an effect on weight loss, however it is not solely responsible for the procedures’ weight loss effect as levels vary postoperatively. RYGB has been shown to produce the greatest weight loss but postoperative ghrelin levels are not consistently decreased compared to LSG, which demonstrates low ghrelin levels routinely. Additional studies are needed to measure weight loss as it relates to postoperative gut hormone levels, as determining the physiologic changes after these procedures will guide future therapies.

Keywords: Adolescent Bariatric surgery, Outcomes, Ghrelin.

Download Full Article

Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences

Standardization of Polyherbal Extract for Type-2 Diabetes
Pages 121-128
M. Mittal, V. Juyal and A. Singh
Published: 12 May 2015

Abstract: Aims: This study was aimed to standardize the polyherbal extract containing Annona squamosa, Phyllanthus emblica, Berberis aristata and Curcuma longa for the management of type-2 diabetes. The standardization of polyherbal formulation is indispensable in order to achieve the quality, purity, safety and efficacy of drugs.

Study Design: Physico-chemical investigations, Physical characteristics, Qualitative phytochemical analyses, fluorescence analysis and HPLC analysis.

Materials and Methods: The Standardization of polyherbal extract was based on systematic organoleptic evaluation, physico-chemical investigation, physical characteristics, heavy metal analysis, fluorescence analysis, phytochemical screening, total alkaloid content,determination of viscosity, surface tension, density and HPLC analysis were carried out by official method.

Results: Organoleptic evaluation resulted that it was yellowish green in colour with characteristic odour, bitter, pungent taste and fine texture. All the applied Physico-chemical parameters like total ash, acid insoluble, water soluble ash, extractive values, observed pH, moisture content, crude fibre, foaming index were found to be within limit. The limits obtained from physical and other parameters could be used as reference in quality control. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, volatile oils, tannins, saponins, phytosterols and mucilage. Absence of detectable levels of heavy metal confirmed that extract was non-toxic in nature. HPLC studies confirm the presence of marker compounds in each extract.

Conclusion: On the basis of observations and experimental results, the study can be used as reference standard for the further quality control research as it significantly ensures the use of genuine and uniform material and well-designed methodologies for standardization and development of poly herbal extract.

Keywords: Standardization, HPLC, Annona squamosa, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Phyllanthus emblica.

Download Full Article

Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences

Can Plants’ Ability for DNA Repair and Stress Defense be Used against Patients’ Circulating Tumor Cells?
Pages 157-178
C.D. Volko and U.D. Rohr
Published: 25 August 2015

Abstract: Introduction: It was suggested that specific plants may reduce cancer's resistance to chemotherapy. Resistance inhibits apoptosis, as well as other fundamental anti-cancer protective mechanisms. Soy bean has been found to reduce cellular stress and repair DNA damage caused by drought or parasites, and can transfer this defense mechanism to other plant species as well. The aim of this study is therefore to conduct a systematic comparison of the effect of soy bean formulation (FSWW08) on gene expression in in vitro human breast cancer cell line, and in in vivo in blood circulating tumor cells (CTC), after oral consumption of FSWW08 by patients suffering from breast-, ovarian-, and prostate cancer.

Method: In vitro gene expressions studies were conducted with the human breast cancer cell line BT-474 that was exposed to doxorubicin or FSWW08, either alone or in combination. Ovarian-, prostate-, and breast cancer patients received FSWW08 for 30 days. CTC were extracted from their blood according to an established protocol. Gene expression evaluations were conducted before and after treatment.

Results: In vitro,the multi-drug resistance (MDR) protein was reduced by FSWW08, but was increased by doxorubicin. The combination of FSWW08 and doxorubicin, however, showed a protective effect against the increase of MDR in physiologic concentrations, increased, however, also in high experimental concentrations of both agents. The expression of several cancer-related protective genes, such as tumor suppressor factors p21, p38 and p53, was improved by FSWW08 in vitro and in vivo, which helped cell differentiation and new tissue formation. Additionally, the BAX/Bcl2 ratio was improved, in vitro, as well as gene expression of estrogen receptor beta, NF-κB, MAP kinase, c-JUN, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, together with an increase of VEGF expression in vivo in CTC.

Conclusion: It was demonstrated that FSWW08 improved the gene functions related to DNA repair and stress in human blood CTC and resistance marker, in vitro, when applied in combination with doxorubicin. As such, larger in vitro and in vivo clinical studies that investigate single botanical compounds from other plants, are warranted.

Keywords: Tp53, Tp21, Bax/Bcl2, MAP kinase, VEGF, CTC, circulating tumor cell, fermented soy, MDR protein, estrogen receptor beta, NF-κB, RT-PCR technique, human breast cancer cell line BT-474, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer.

Download Full Article